Niacin & Niacinamide for Human Nutrition

Food cereals
  • Introduction

    Lonza is the leading supplier of vitamin B3 in the form of Niacin and Niacinamide. Vitamin B3 is an essential vitamin needed for protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Niacin and niacinamide are vitamins of the Vitamin-B group having equivalent vitamin activity. Both are precursors in the synthesis of the pyridine coenzymes NAD and NADP involved in cell metabolism. Vitamin B3 can be found in various foods, but its bioavailability depends greatly on the source.

     

    Niacin logo  Niacinamide logo 

     

    Niacin  

    Niacin chemical model  Chemical name: pyridine-3-carboxylic acid

    Other names: vitamin PP, vitamin B3

    Chemical formula: C6H5NO2

    CAS No: 59-67-6

     

    Niacinamide

    Niacinamide chemical model 

    Chemical name: pyridine-3-carboxylic acid amide

    Other names: vitamin PP, vitamin B3

    Chemical formula: C6H6N2O

    CAS No: 98-92-0

     

    Niacin and niacinamide were found to be the antipellagra vitamin in 1937, about 200 years after the symptons of pellagra were first described. Niacin and niacinamide have been also referred to as vitamin PP. These vitamins are essential precursors for the synthesis of the coenzymes NAD and NADP; which are involved in numerous metabolic reactions.

  • Health Benefits

    Biochemical Function

    Niacin and niacinamide are required by all living cells. They are an essential component of two coenzymes, niacinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and niacinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). More than 40 biochemical reactions dependent on them have been identified. The major function is removal of hydrogen from certain substrates and the transfer of hydrogen to another coenzyme. Reactions in which NAD and NADP are involved include the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

    Endogenous Synthesis and Natural Occurrence
    The amino acid tryptophan is a precursor of niacin. This endogenous synthesis, comprising 13 steps, is not very efficient. Studies in man have shown that approximately 60mg of tryptophan are required to produce 1mg of niacin.

    Niacin and niacinamide are naturally present in various foods. The natural presence of niacin/niacinamide does not mean, however, that these quantities are available to the human body or even sufficient to cover daily requirements. Some foodstuffs contain chemically bound niacin with low bioavailability. In cereal grains, as much as 70 to 100 % of the niacin are biologically unavailable. Niacin in maize is fully unavailable. When considering cereal/maize-based diets, it is necessary to make allowance for poor bioavailability.

    Blood Lipid Management
    Unlike niacinamide, nicotinic acid is also utilized in pharmaceutical applications for maintaining sound heart function and healthy cholesterol levels in humans. In higher dosages, it has been shown to lower elevated LDL (low density lipoprotein), or “bad” cholesterol, as well as triglyceride levels in the blood, helping to prevent and, where necessary, treat atherosclerosis. It also helps to raise levels of HDL (high density lipoprotein), or “good” cholesterol.

  • Quality and Safety

    Lonza is the world's largest manufacturer of nicotinates. State of the art, dedicated plants in Switzerland (Visp) and in China (Guangzhou & Nansha) produce niacin (nicotinic acid) and niacinamide (nicotinic acid amide).

     

     

     

    Lonza Ltd

    Visp, Switzerland

                   

    Lonza Guangzhou Ltd

    Guangzhou, China

    In the Visp (Switzerland) plant the following
    products are manufactured:

    • Niacin USP
    • Niacin USP granular
    • Niacin USP special (DMF)
    • Niacin USP granular special (DMF)
     

    In the Guangzhou (China) plant the following
    products are manufactured:

    • Niacinamide USP
    Niacin quality complies with all important
    current Pharmacopoeias.
      Niacinamide USP quality complies with all important
    current Pharmacopoeias.

    Inspections:

    • FDA/Swissmedic
    • Various customer audits
     

    Inspections:

    • FDA, Swissmedic, MHRA
    • Chinese government
    • Various customer audits

    Certificates:

    • CEP
    • Kosher
    • Halal
    • GMP
    • FSSC 22000:2010
    • ISO 9001:2008
    • FAMI-QS and others
     

    Certificates:

    • CEP
    • Kosher
    • Halal
    • GMP ISO 9001:2008
    • ISO 14001:2004
    • HACCP
    • OHSAS 18001:2007

  • Applications

    Food Fortification
    Administration of supplements is an effective way to rapidly correct existing deficiencies or avoid their development in high risk populations.

    The Food and Nutrition Board, part of the National Academy of Sciences, has recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for niacinamide. The niacinamide requirements are variable, depending on sex, age, pregnancy. RDA values are listed in the following table.

    Recommended Dietary Allowances for Niacin and Niacinamide

     

    Age, year 

    Weight, kg 

    Niacin, mg/d  

    Infants 

    0-0.5

     6

     5

     0.5-1

     9

     6

     Children

     1-3

     13

     9

     4-6

     20

     12

     Men

     11-14

     45

     17

     15-18

     66

     20

     19-24

     72

     19

     25-50

     79

     19

     > 51

     77

     15

     Women

     11-14

     46

     15

     15-18

     55

     15

     19-24

     58

     15

     25-50

     63

     15

     > 51

     65

     13

     Pregnant women

     

     

     17

     Nursing mothers

     

     

     20

    Examples:
    Today, many types of food (rice, cereals, milk, etc.) are enriched with vitamins. Many breakfast drinks, soft and sport drinks contain a cocktail of vitamins. Niacinamide is included in these formulations to cover approximately one third to one half of the daily requirement.

    Dietetic food include infant formulas, slimming diets, special foods for athletes, medical feeding ingredients (enteral nutrition products). In general, foods for special dietetic use are fortified with all essential vitamins, minerals and trace elements to prevent deficiencies.

    A classic example of food fortification is the addition of B vitamins (including niacin/niacinamide) to wheat flour.

    Flour Enrichment
    Application of specific premixes will result in a flour which meets the requirements of the respective authorities.

    Required 

    mg per kg flour  

     

     minimum

    maximum  

     Vitamin B1

     4.0

     5.0

     Vitamin B2

     2.4

     3.0

     Niacin/Niacinamide

     32.0

     40.0

     Iron (II)

     26.0

     33.0

    Breakfast Drink

     

    content in 100 g 

     Niacinamide

     18 mg

     Vitamin B1

     1.4 mg

     Vitamin B2

     1.6 mg

     Vitamin B6

     2 mg

     Pantothenic acid

     6 mg

     Vitamin B12

     1 microgram

     Vitamin C

     60 mg

     Folic acid

     0.2 mg

     Biotin

     0.15 mg

     Vitamin A

     0.8 mg

     Vitamin D

     5 microgram

     Vitamin E

     10 mg

     Vitamin K

     0.1 mg

    Multivitamin Tablets
    To ensure nutritional equivalence or to compensate for naturally occurring variations in nutrient levels or to compensate for a higher demand, multivitamin tablets with varying formulations are offered by the industry.

    Typical Formulation of 1 Tablet (2.0g)

     Vitamin

    active content per tablet 

    % RDA 

     Niacinamide

     0.9 mg

     50 %

     Vitamin C

     30.0 mg

     50 %

     Pantothenic acid (Ca salt)

     3.0 mg

     50 %

     Vitamin B1 

    0.7 mg 

     50 %

     Vitamin B2

    0.8 mg 

     50 %

     Vitamin B6

    1.0 mg 

     50 %

     Vitamin B12

     0.5 microgram

     50 %

     Folic acid

    0.1 mg 

     50 %

    Biotin 

    0.075 mg 

     50 %

     Vitamin E

     5.0 mg

     50 %