Mammals have evolved to become particularly adept at utilizing fat as a form of energy storage. All mammals synthesize triglycerides by esterifying fatty acids with glycerol to form fats in a process known as lipogenesis. Stored fat can promote healthy cell function, protect organs against shock, and help maintain body temperature. Fat, stored in adipose tissue, can be designated by its storage location. The adipose tissue located within the abdominal wall and surrounding organs is called visceral fat whereas the fat just beneath the skin is called subcutaneous fat. When the body is under energy stress, the stored fat can be degraded. This reverse process, known as lipolysis generates fatty acids and glycerol, a critical component for cellular metabolism, by hydrolysis of triglycerides.
Preadipocytes are precursor cells believed to be undifferentiated fibroblast that develop into adipocytes when fully differentiated. Lonza offers Poietics™ Preadipocytes directly isolated from either subcutaneous or visceral fat from either normal, diabetic type I, or diabetic type II donors.
Lonza offers Preadipocyte Growth Media-2 (PGM™-2) which is optimized for preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation in only 10 days of culture time. The medium contains no glitazones that can interfere with PPAR-gamma activity measurements. The medium used with Lonza’s cells compose a robust system that requires no media changes during the culture time to differentiate. The PGM™-2 BulletKit™ Medium contains the supplements needed for both proliferation of cells as preadipocytes and differentiation of the preadipocytes into mature adipocytes.
Lipid metabolism in mature adipocytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) can be efficiently and quantitatively measured with AdipoRed™ Assay Reagent for lipogenesis and AdipoLyze™ Assay Reagent for lipolysis.