For over 40 years, Lonza has been the global leader in vitamin B3 production specializing in both Niacin (nicotinic acid) and Niacinamide. Currently, Lonza operates three Niacin/Niacinamide plants in Europe and Asia. As the world’s largest supplier, covering more than half of the total vitamin B3 demand in the global feed and food industry, Lonza is committed to providing unsurpassed quality nutritional ingredients.
Lonza’s multi-sites concept, know-how and experience, as well as exceptional quality and service, make us the most reliable partner to support the long-term growth of our customers.
What is Niacin & Niacinamide?
Niacin and niacinamide are vitamins of the vitamin-B group having equivalent vitamin activity. Both are precursors in the synthesis of the pyridine coenzymes NAD and NADP involved in cell metabolism.
Chemical name: 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid
Other names: nicotinic acid, pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, vitamin PP
Chemical formula: C6H5NO2
CAS No: 59-67-6
Chemical name: 3-Pyridinecarboxamide
Other names: nicotinamide, nicotinic acid amide, pyridine 3-carboxylic acid amide, vitamin PP
Chemical formula: C6H6N2O
CAS No: 98-92-0
Niacin and niacinamide were found to be the pellagra-preventing substances in 1937, about 200 years after pellagra was first described as a disease.
Niacin and niacinamide are required by all living cells. They are essential components of two coenzymes, niacinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and niacinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). More than 40 biochemical reactions have been identified that are dependent on these coenzymes. Their major function is the removal of hydrogen from certain substrates and the transfer of hydrogen to another coenzyme. Reactions in which NAD and NADP are involved include the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
Endogenous Synthesis and Natural Occurrence
The amino acid tryptophan is a precursor of niacin. This endogenous synthesis, comprising 13 steps and is not very efficient. Studies in man have shown that approximately 60 mg of tryptophan are required to produce 1 mg of niacin.
Niacin and niacinamide are naturally present in various foods, but the bioavailability is low.
Niacin and niacinamide are one of the most stable vitamins, virtually unaffected by light, moisture, acids, alkalis or oxidizing agents.
Lonza is the world's largest manufacturer of vitamin B3. State of the art, dedicated plants in Switzerland (Visp) and in China (Guangzhou and Nansha) produce Niacin (nicotinic acid) and Niacinamide.
Lonza Ltd, Visp, Switzerland
In the Visp (Switzerland) plant the following products are manufactured:
Niacin min. 99.5%
Niacin feed grade, min 99.5%
Niacin quality complies with all important current Pharmacopoeias.
Various customer audits
Certificate of Suitability (European Pharmacopoeia)
Lonza Guangzhou Ltd, Guangzhou, PR China
In the Guangzhou and Nansha (China) plants the following products are manufactured:
Niacinamide feed grade, min. 99.0%
Niacinamide quality complies with all important current Pharmacopoeias.
Vitamin B3 is essential for optimum health and maximum productivity of all animals. Therefore, it is important to recognize how it is supplied to the animal. The following factors can influence the availability of niacin and niacinamide for the body:
- Enzymatic conversion of tryptophan to niacin
- Natural niacin and niacinamide content of feedstuffs and the associated bioavailability.
The effectiveness of these sources in providing enough vitamin B3 for optimum performance is limited. Therefore, the animal feeding and nutrition industry supplements diets with niacin and niacinamide to ensure that the daily requirement of this vitamin is met.
Dietary Vitamin B3
Numerous experiments have shown that although feedstuffs contain vitamin B3, much of the ingested vitamin B3 is bound in a polysaccharide complex, and thus unavailable to the animal.
There are also differences in the utilisation of naturally occurring niacin and niacinamide between individual animal species and between various age groups.
Modern, intensive animal production calls for supplementing feedstuffs with niacin and niacinamide to make up for the variations in the availability from natural feed sources.
In the feed industry, nutritionists agree that vitamin B3 supplementation is required in every swine and poultry diet to meet the body’s basal requirement. In 2009, it was estimated that over 18 billion chickens and over 940 million pigs received vitamin B3 supplements in their feeds, with most of the niacin and niacinamide originating from Lonza. As the global leader in the vitamin B3 market, Lonza has initiated a series of new research studies with dairy cattle to further the understanding of the role of supplemental niacin and niacinamide in improving productivity and economic return for the farm. More than 43 000 scientific publications confirm the health benefits of vitamin B3.
Requirements and Recommendations
Supplementing niacin and niacinamide in the diets fed to animals will prevent conditions associated with vitamin B3 deficiency which result from the reduced activity of the coenzymes NAD and NADP.
Proper niacin and niacinamide supplementation rates will:
- Maximize weight gain
- Optimize feed intake and feed efficiency
- Ensure proper utilization of other nutrients
- Support general health and well-being
Vitamin B3 deficiency reduces the activity of the coenzymes NAD and NADP, affecting numerous metabolic processes and in turn causes other secondary metabolic disorders.
Commercial problems commonly reported with vitamin B3 deficiency are:
- Reduced weight
- Decreased feed intake
- Reduced feed efficiency
- Impaired utilization of other nutrients
To achieve peak performance and to maintain good health, all domestic animals depend on a supplemental dietary source of vitamin B3 to meet their requirements.
Recommended Niacin/Niacinamide Supplementation of Feed
||Supplementation in mg/kg
|| 6 g per head per day
|beef cattle (feedlot)
|| 1 g per head per day
The manufacturers of zinc and cadmium brighteners have long been using nicotinic acid (niacin) in the preparation of metal surfaces. The addition of nicotinic acid in a quaternized form (obtained by the reaction of nicotinic acid with benzyl chloride) to meta-plating baths results in uniform and brilliant surfaces. Use of nicotinic acid may also improve the electro-deposition of the plating metals.
Nicotinic acid is also used as a brightener additive in cyanide-free metal baths for galvanic zinc, cadmium, tin, chromium copper and nickel.
Niacin and Niacinamide Derivatives
Niacin and niacinamide are intermediates for various products.
We would be glad to inform you about other related products available upon request.
Products from 5-ethyl-2-methylpyridine, an intermediate produced at Lonza, Visp:
Products from 3-cyanopyridine, a product produced at Lonza, Guangzhou: