Niacin & Niacinamide for Production Animals

  • Introduction

    For over 40 years, Lonza has been the global leader in vitamin B3 production specializing in both Niacin (nicotinic acid) and Niacinamide. Currently, Lonza operates three Niacin/Niacinamide plants in Europe and Asia. As the world’s largest supplier, covering more than half of the total vitamin B3 demand in the global feed and food industry, Lonza is committed to providing unsurpassed quality nutritional ingredients.

    Lonza’s multi-sites concept, know-how and experience, as well as exceptional quality and service, make us the most reliable partner to support the long-term growth of our customers.

  • What is Niacin & Niacinamide?

    Niacin and niacinamide are vitamins of the vitamin-B group having equivalent vitamin activity. Both are precursors in the synthesis of the pyridine coenzymes NAD and NADP involved in cell metabolism.


    Niacin

    Niacin chemical structure Niacin


    Chemical name: 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid
    Other names: nicotinic acid, pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, vitamin PP
    Chemical formula: C6H5NO2
    CAS No: 59-67-6


    Niacinamide

    Niacinamide chemical structure


    Chemical name: 3-Pyridinecarboxamide
    Other names: nicotinamide, nicotinic acid amide, pyridine 3-carboxylic acid amide, vitamin PP
    Chemical formula: C6H6N2O
    CAS No: 98-92-0


    Niacin and niacinamide were found to be the pellagra-preventing substances in 1937, about 200 years after pellagra was first described as a disease.


    Biochemical Function

    Niacin and niacinamide are required by all living cells. They are essential components of two coenzymes, niacinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and niacinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). More than 40 biochemical reactions have been identified that are dependent on these coenzymes. Their major function is the removal of hydrogen from certain substrates and the transfer of hydrogen to another coenzyme. Reactions in which NAD and NADP are involved include the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.


    Endogenous Synthesis and Natural Occurrence

    The amino acid tryptophan is a precursor of niacin. This endogenous synthesis, comprising 13 steps and is not very efficient. Studies in man have shown that approximately 60 mg of tryptophan are required to produce 1 mg of niacin.

    Niacin and niacinamide are naturally present in various foods, but the bioavailability is low.


    Stability

    Niacin and niacinamide are one of the most stable vitamins, virtually unaffected by light, moisture, acids, alkalis or oxidizing agents.

  • Production Sites

    Lonza is the world's largest manufacturer of vitamin B3. State of the art, dedicated plants in Switzerland (Visp) and in China (Guangzhou and Nansha) produce Niacin (nicotinic acid) and Niacinamide.

     

    Visp 
     Visp

     

     Nansha
      Nansha

  • Product Grades


    Lonza Ltd, Visp, Switzerland

     Niacin production in Visp

    In the Visp (Switzerland) plant the following products are manufactured:
    Niacin min. 99.5%
    Niacin feed grade, min 99.5%

    Niacin quality complies with all important current Pharmacopoeias.

    Inspections:
    FDA/Swissmedic
    ALP Posieux
    Various customer audits 

    Certificates:
    Certificate of Suitability (European Pharmacopoeia)
    Kosher certificate
    Halal certificate
    GMPFAMI-QS certificate
    and others

    Lonza Guangzhou Ltd, Guangzhou, PR China  

     Nansha

    In the Guangzhou and Nansha (China) plants the following products are manufactured:
    Niacinamide feed grade, min. 99.0%

    Niacinamide quality complies with all important current Pharmacopoeias.

    Inspections:
    FDA
    Chinese government 

    Certificates:
    Kosher certificate
    Halal certificate
    GMPFAMI-QS certificate
    and others

     

  • Application

    Vitamin B3 is essential for optimum health and maximum productivity of all animals. Therefore, it is important to recognize how it is supplied to the animal. The following factors can influence the availability of niacin and niacinamide for the body:

    • Biosynthesis
    • Enzymatic conversion of tryptophan to niacin
    • Natural niacin and niacinamide content of feedstuffs and the associated bioavailability.

    The effectiveness of these sources in providing enough vitamin B3 for optimum performance is limited. Therefore, the animal feeding and nutrition industry supplements diets with niacin and niacinamide to ensure that the daily requirement of this vitamin is met.

    Poultry   Swine  Cow

    Dietary Vitamin B3
    Numerous experiments have shown that although feedstuffs contain vitamin B3, much of the ingested vitamin B3 is bound in a polysaccharide complex, and thus unavailable to the animal.

    There are also differences in the utilisation of naturally occurring niacin and niacinamide between individual animal species and between various age groups.

    Modern, intensive animal production calls for supplementing feedstuffs with niacin and niacinamide to make up for the variations in the availability from natural feed sources.

    In the feed industry, nutritionists agree that vitamin B3 supplementation is required in every swine and poultry diet to meet the body’s basal requirement. In 2009, it was estimated that over 18 billion chickens and over 940 million pigs received vitamin B3 supplements in their feeds, with most of the niacin and niacinamide originating from Lonza. As the global leader in the vitamin B3 market, Lonza has initiated a series of new research studies with dairy cattle to further the understanding of the role of supplemental niacin and niacinamide in improving productivity and economic return for the farm. More than 43 000 scientific publications confirm the health benefits of vitamin B3.

    Requirements and Recommendations
    Supplementing niacin and niacinamide in the diets fed to animals will prevent conditions associated with vitamin B3 deficiency which result from the reduced activity of the coenzymes NAD and NADP.

    Proper niacin and niacinamide supplementation rates will:

    • Maximize weight gain
    • Optimize feed intake and feed efficiency
    • Ensure proper utilization of other nutrients
    • Support general health and well-being

    Vitamin B3 deficiency reduces the activity of the coenzymes NAD and NADP, affecting numerous metabolic processes and in turn causes other secondary metabolic disorders.

    Commercial problems commonly reported with vitamin B3 deficiency are:

    • Reduced weight 
    • Decreased feed intake 
    • Reduced feed efficiency 
    • Impaired utilization of other nutrients

     

    To achieve peak performance and to maintain good health, all domestic animals depend on a supplemental dietary source of vitamin B3 to meet their requirements.

    Recommended Niacin/Niacinamide Supplementation of Feed 

    Species   Supplementation in mg/kg
    Poultry chicks starting      40-60
    broilers  40-80
    broiler breeders   30-60
    layers   30-50
    turkey starters   100-150
    turkey grower/finisher   60-80
    turkey breeders   100-150
    ducks 60-80
    geese 60-80
    ostriches 80-120
    Pigs piglets 40-50
    pigs grower 30-40
    pigs fattening 20-30
    sows 30-40
    boars 30-40
    Ruminants calves  30-40
    ewes/lambs  10-20
    dairy cows    6 g per head per day
    beef cattle (feedlot)  1 g per head per day
    Fish/crustaceans trouts   180-200
    salmons 180-200
    eels 50-100
    carps 50-100
    tilapias 50-100
    catfish 50-100
    shrimps 200-250
    Horses foals 40-60
    mares 140-180
    stallions 140-180
    Cats/dogs cats 50-70
    dogs 50-70
    Rabbits rabbits 40-60
    Mink/Foxes minks 50-100
    foxes 50-100
            

    Technical Application
    The manufacturers of zinc and cadmium brighteners have long been using nicotinic acid (niacin) in the preparation of metal surfaces. The addition of nicotinic acid in a quaternized form (obtained by the reaction of nicotinic acid with benzyl chloride) to meta-plating baths results in uniform and brilliant surfaces. Use of nicotinic acid may also improve the electro-deposition of the plating metals.

    Nicotinic acid is also used as a brightener additive in cyanide-free metal baths for galvanic zinc, cadmium, tin, chromium copper and nickel.

  • Intermediates

    Niacin and Niacinamide Derivatives
    Niacin and niacinamide are intermediates for various products.
    We would be glad to inform you about other related products available upon request.

    Niacin derivatives

     

     3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid  3-Pyridinecarbonitrile_1-oxide 3_4-Pyridinedicarboxylic_acid. 

     


    5-Ethyl-2-Methylpyridine Derivatives
    Products from 5-ethyl-2-methylpyridine, an intermediate produced at Lonza, Visp:

     5-Ethyl-2-methylpyridine derivatives

     

     Pyridine_5-ethyl-2-methyl    
     Pyridine_5-ethenyl-2-methyl  3-Pyridinecarboxylic_acid_6-methyl  2-Pyridinamine_3-ethyl-6-methyl
     2-Pyridineethanol_5-ethyl  Pyridine_2-ethenyl-5-ethyl  1H-Indene-1_3_2H_-dione2-_5-ethyl-2_1H_-pyridinyliden
    Pyridine_5-ethyl-2-methyl-_1-oxide Pyridine_2-chloro-3-ethyl-6-methyl 2_5-Pyridinedicarboxylic_acid
    2-Pyridinecarboxylic_acid_5-ehtyl Pyridine_5-ethyl-2-stiryl Methanone_phenyl-3-pyridinyl
    3-Pyridinecarboxylic_acid_2-acetyl _2_2-Bypyridine_-5_5-dicarboxylic_acid 3-Pyridinecarboxylic_acid_2-chloro
    3-Pyridinecarboxylic_acid_6-chloro 3-Pyridinecarboxylic_acid_6-hydroxy

     

    3-Cyanopyridine derivatives
    Products from 3-cyanopyridine, a product produced at Lonza, Guangzhou:

    3-Cyanopyridine_derivatives

     

    3-Pyridinecarbonitrile  3-Pyridinecarboxylic_acid_amide  3-Pyridineamine 
     3-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde  3-Pyridinemethylamine  3-Piperidinemethanamine